The Statue of Liberty represents many things, among them friendship between nations and freedom from oppression. The Statue of Liberty was a reassuring sign that they had arrived in the land of their dreams. The first symbol of the Statue of Liberty is a little forgotten today. And she surely understood that had she been born somewhere else, she may have faced oppression and suffering herself. The great historian Ralph Raico writes : Immigrants who first saw this great statue understood that their long journey to freedom was finally complete.HistoryThe Statue of Liberty was a gift from France to the U.S., in recognition of their shared values of freedom and democracy. When the Statue of Liberty was dedicated on October 28, 1886, the ceremonial speeches had nothing to do with immigrants arriving in America. There were even rumors that another city, perhaps Boston, could wind up with the statue. The poet Emma Lazarus, who was known and respected in the artistic community in New York City, was asked to participate. Archived. Fundraising events were organized, one of which was an art show. As for the current symbolic meaning of the Statue of Liberty, immigration and a welcome to the poor and huddled masses of the world is probably the ONLY meaning … For the vast majority of immigrants, Ellis Island truly was an "Island of Hope" - the first stop on their way to new opportunities and experiences in America. The Statue of Liberty was created to celebrate freed slaves, not immigrants, its new museum recounts Lady Liberty was inspired by the end of the Civil War and emancipation. hide. It has greeted immigrants and returnees to America ever since. The Statue of Liberty was created to celebrate freed slaves, not immigrants, its new museum recounts May 23, 2019 | Washington Post. The Statue of Liberty, which stands in Upper New York Bay, is a universal symbol of freedom. Fast-forward 150 years and here we are, on the cusp of a national Democratic collapse with a looming presidency that threatens the already very shaky pedestal Lady Liberty stands on. Between 1886 and 1924, 14 million immigrants came to the United States through New York. No, it was also built to welcome 1,200 immigrants from Poland the next day, and 2,000 men, women and children from Turkey the day after that. She is caught, forever, in the moment of becoming free. The Statue, that way also represents friendship, liberty and openness. The American Immigrant Wall of Honor is located at the Ellis Island National Museum of Immigration. The Statue symbolizes a new beginning. 1.0k. The new museum revives Lady Liberty's forgotten history. Immigrants celebrate seeing The Statue of Liberty as their ship pulls into New York harbor, circa 1900. It would imply that the welcoming of new arrivals, the poor and tired and struggling to be free, was a temporary thing, that the welcoming of the world’s oppressed was a thing of the past. This welcome will not end. Humans seeking peace, seeking acceptance and the possibility of a life without oppression, will always be on the move. He also noted that the Lazarus poem referred to "people coming from Europe," which critics interpreted as a sign of current bias toward non-white immigrants. Robert McNamara. The following year, the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island were jointly added to the National Register of Historic Places, and the statue individually in 2017. His forthcoming book is Heroes of the Frontier. Immigration has become the victim of such shifting symbolism. In a series of interviews on August 13, 2019, Cuccinelli said the poem should be changed to refer to immigrants who "can stand on their own two feet." "It's a symbol of American liberty lighting the world. And that is that she is moving. Before the Statue of Liberty was completed and shipped to the United States for assembly, a campaign was organized by newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer to raise funds to build the pedestal on Bedloe’s Island. President Calvin Coolidge officially designated the Statue of Liberty as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1924. In 1989, Chinese students demonstrating in Tiananmen Square made a model of the Statue of Liberty to symbolize their revolution. He was Amazon.com's first-ever history editor and has bylines in New York, the Chicago Tribune, and other national outlets. If you’re arranging a trip to Ellis, look up your family’s name and panel number before your … Thus, the sonnet was generally forgotten not long after it was written. Close. Donations were very slow in coming, and in the early 1880s it appeared that the statue might never be assembled in New York. It can not end. As millions of immigrants found themselves welcomed to America by the Statue of Liberty, it became associated with their struggle for freedom and desire for a better life. As your boat rises and falls on the rough waters of New York Harbor, you will see, with undeniable clarity, that her right foot is striding forward. Read about her in biographies by Esther Schor, Bette Roth Young, and Eve Merriam (all in our library). Harrison later recalled that she encouraged Lazarus to change her mind by saying, “Think of that goddess standing on her pedestal down yonder in the bay, and holding her torch out to those Russian refugees of yours that you are so fond of visiting at Ward’s Island.”, Lazarus reconsidered and wrote the sonnet, “The New Colossus.” The opening of the poem refers to the Colossus of Rhodes, an ancient statue of a Greek titan. And though, if pressed, we remember that she is wearing sandals, we forget, if we ever knew, that the Statue of Liberty is on the go. On Independence Day, and in this climate of fear and xenophobia, we must remember that this symbol of acceptance has not put down her torch, says Dave Eggers, Last modified on Wed 29 Nov 2017 10.30 GMT. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience and for our, Poet Emma Lazarus Was Asked to Write a Poem, Emma Lazarus Applied Her Social Conscience, The Poem “The New Colossus” Was Essentially Forgotten, The Poem Was Revived by a Friend of Emma Lazarus, Frederic August Bartholdi: The Man Behind Lady Liberty, Defining "Symbol" in Language and Literature, The Most Important Inventions of the Industrial Revolution. But Lazarus then refers to the statue which “shall” stand as a “mighty woman with a torch” and the “Mother of Exiles.”. The statue became especially associated with immigrants to America largely due to proximity to Ellis Island and one particular poem. Pre-1920s. An obituary in the New York Times the following day praised her writing, with the headline calling her "An American Poet of Uncommon Talent." Two years later, in the summer of 2019, Ken Cuccinelli, the acting director of the U.S. The book in her left hand, with 4 July carved in roman numerals, is not likely to be missed. The writer Constance Cary Harrison asked Lazarus to write a poem to help raise money for the Statue of Liberty pedestal fund. The Statue of Liberty is a symbolic representation of the American Independence. save. The sculptor who created the enormous statue, Fredric-Auguste Bartholdi, never intended the statue to evoke the idea of immigration. share. Over the following decades, especially in the 1920s, when the United States began to restrict immigration, the words of Lazarus took on deeper meaning. ... Overview + History National Immigration Museum Family History Center American Immigrant Wall of Honor The Role of the Foundation The Future of Ellis . The monument was expanded to also include Ellis Island in 1965. The sculptor who created the enormous statue, Fredric-Auguste Bartholdi, never intended the statue to evoke the idea of immigration. Get Ferry Tickets Donate. Stephen Miller, an anti-immigrant adviser to President Donald Trump, sought to denigrate the poem and its connection to the statue. The statue of liberty is often the first sight which immigrants get to see when they come from aboard and is widely considered to be an icon for freedom all across the United States of America. The Statue of Liberty is arguably one of the most prominent symbols of democracy in the world. Still, the poem and its connection to the statue unexpectedly became a contentious issue in the summer of 2017. ... replica of Lady Liberty's face; and recordings of immigrants describing the sight of ... the statue] had to do with abolition, but it's a meaning that didn't stick,” Edward ... www.washingtonpost.com But no one can repudiate a monument of this size, nor can they deny its message, nor can they deny the hundreds of millions who see in it a beacon of exuberant and ceaseless welcome. Immigrants celebrate seeing The Statue of Liberty as their ship pulls into New York harbor, circa 1900. If we ever forget who we are or why we’re here, if we ever forget the meaning of America, we need only look at the woman’s feet. Foundation Click for more info . And whenever there is talk of closing America's borders, relevant lines from "The New Colossus" are always quoted in opposition. The sculptor who created the enormous statue, Fredric-Auguste Bartholdi, never intended the statue to evoke the idea of immigration. On August 2, 2017, the poem and its importance to the Statue of Liberty's symbolism, and thus the effect on American immigration policy, was debated in a White House briefing. "The Statue of Liberty is a symbol of liberty enlightening the world," Miller said. She had become very concerned about the plight of Jews being persecuted in a pogrom in Russia. The evolution of the meaning of the Statue of Liberty demonstrates how. She tragically died of cancer on November 19, 1887, at the age of 38, less than four years after writing the poem. To these anxious newcomers, the Statue's uplifted torch did not suggest "enlightenment," as her creators intended, but rather, "welcome." Lazarus had been visiting them, and had gotten involved with charitable organizations helping the destitute new arrivals get a start in their new country. The Lady Liberty holding her torch high in the sky welcomed those new immigrants. Thus the Statue is made aptly, depicting the Roman goddess of freedom, Liberta. When the Statue of Liberty was dedicated on October 28, 1886, the ceremonial speeches had nothing to do with immigrants arriving in America. In May 1903, a friend of Lazarus, Georgina Schuyler, succeeded in having a bronze plaque containing the text of “The New Colossus” installed on an interior wall of the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. Statue of Liberty Represents Welcoming Immigrants Between 1886 and 1924, there were about 14 million immigrants came to the United States through New York. replica of Lady Liberty's face; and recordings of immigrants describing the sight of the statue] had to do with abolition, but it's a meaning that didn't stick,” Edward www.washingtonpost.com It would imply that once the first few million immigrants arrived on American shores, fleeing religious bigotry or political violence or ethnic persecution, then the United States should or could close its gates. The Statue of Liberty was built to welcome immigrants – that welcome must not end ... and to the meaning of the statue that we accept as our talisman. Lazarus was no doubt thinking of the Jewish refugees from Russia she had been volunteering to assist at Ward's Island. So how and why did the statue become an iconic symbol of immigration? By that time the statue had been standing in the harbor for nearly 17 years, and millions of immigrants had passed by it. The next morning the New York Times reported that a crowd which included J. P. Morgan, the famous banker, heard a reading of the poem “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus. by Gillian Brockell via Washington Post on May 23, 2019 In a sense, he viewed his creation as something nearly opposite: as a symbol of liberty spreading outward from America. It was quoted in John F. Kennedy's book A Nation of Immigrants (1958) as well as a 2010 political speech by President Obama advocating immigration policy reform. And the poem written by Emma Lazarus seems to have been forgotten. On December 3, 1883, a reception was held at the Academy of Design in New York City to auction off a portfolio of writings and artwork to raise funds for the statue’s pedestal. She is striding not away from the troubled, but toward them. These fearful voices put forth a direct repudiation of the origin and elemental purpose of this country, and to the meaning of the statue that we accept as our talisman. The Statue of Liberty Was Created to Celebrate Freed Slaves, Not Immigrants Lady Liberty was inspired by the end of the Civil War and emancipation. A gift from France, the Statue of Liberty has represented freedom from tyranny, financial hardship and suffering for many immigrants since the late 1800s. And this is why the Statue of Liberty, the world’s largest kinetic sculpture, is on the move. France gave the Statue of Liberty to the United States in 1886 to commemorate the centennial of the Declaration of Independence. She is, in fact, meeting new arrivals before they even land on our shores. The Meaning behind Some of the Important Symbols of the Statue of Liberty It was shipped in crates, assembled and was finally unveiled on Oct. 28, 1886 in New York Harbor. Thus in the mind of Lazarus the statue was not symbolic of liberty flowing outward from America, as Bartholdi envisioned, but rather a symbol of America being a refuge where those oppressed could come to live in liberty. hough she is the most recognisable symbol of the American experiment, there is something about the. Citizenship and Immigration Services in the Trump administration, sparked a controversy by suggesting that the classic poem be edited. Lady Liberty took on deeper meaning because of … Pre-1920s. When the Statue of Liberty was dedicated on October 28, 1886, the ceremonial speeches had nothing to do with immigrants arriving in America. Posted by 1 year ago. Robert J. McNamara is a history expert and former magazine journalist. So long as tyrants and terrorists chase innocents around the globe, we must offer them refuge. This made the statue an important symbol for the immigrants hoping to find opportunity in America. And for those fleeing oppression in Europe, the Statue of Liberty did seem to be holding a torch of welcome. For the rest, it became the "Island of Tears" - a place where families were separated and individuals were denied entry into the United States. What does the Statue of Liberty represent? That would imply that freedom is static, that once established, it’s a settled thing. Later in the sonnet are the lines which eventually became iconic: "Give me your tired, your poor,Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,I lift my lamp beside the golden door!". So in this era of fear and xenophobia, or in the next wave of fear and xenophobia – they seem to come every four years – remember that the symbol of this country has not put down her torch, has not closed the book on the Declaration of Independence, and has not stopped moving. And around her feet are chains, broken, which sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi meant to symbolise the breaking of the chains of bondage and tyranny. The Statue of Liberty: its meaning is entirely a matter of the angle of perception. We live in a moment when shrill voices tell us that not only should immigration be stifled, but that millions of current residents should be deported, returned to their country of origin, no matter the consequences for their souls or our consciences. A top US immigration official says the famous inscription on the Statue of Liberty, welcoming the world's tired and poor to American shores, was referring to people coming from Europe. Take the ferry to Liberty Island. The Statue of Liberty was the idea of Edouard Laboulaye, a French abolitionist and jurist, who wanted to gift the United States something to symbolize freedom after the Civil War to also serve as a reminder of France and America's friendship, according to the National Parks Service. The art auction did not raise as much money as the organizers had hoped. The torch in her right hand, symbolising enlightenment, cannot be ignored and is never overlooked. Cunningham wrote that "The Statue of Liberty was not conceived and sculpted as a symbol of immigration, but it quickly became so as immigrant ships passed How the Statue of Liberty Became the (Oct 24, 2020) Today, amid the Syrian refugee crisis, the Statue of Liberty has become the Statue of Liberty originally had no connection with immigrants or refugees. The connection to immigration came later. Updated August 14, 2019. Lady Liberty holding her torch high in the sky welcomed these new immigrants. • Dave Eggers is the author of The Circle and A Hologram for the King. The poem that you're referring to was added later. Lazarus was a 34-year-old native New Yorker, the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family with roots going back to the colonial era in New York City. 93 comments. Nor are the seven spikes of her crown, matching the world’s seven continents and seven seas. Overlooking the Manhattan skyline, the Wall is situated just outside the Great Hall. On the sub-national level, the Statue of Liberty National Monument was added to the New Jersey Register of Historic Places in 1971, and was made a New York City designated landmark Yet over time the sentiments expressed in words by Lazarus and the massive figure crafted of copper by Bartholdi would become inseparable in the public mind. It has become much more, symbolizing the Mother of Exiles, greeting the millions of immigrants and embodying hope and opportunity for those seeking a better life in America. America’s promise as a nation of immigrants is enshrined on the Statue of Liberty, which stands as a beacon offering sanctuary. It is also a national park tourism destination in the United States of America. The Statue of Liberty now has a different meaning than it's original. For what would it mean if the symbol of liberty were standing still? Freedom is not a settled thing … the Statue of Liberty. Though she is the most recognisable symbol of the American experiment, there is something about the Statue of Liberty that goes largely unnoticed. The statue’s meaning and mission was transformed by an American Jewish poet, Emma Lazarus (1849-1887). And it will – it should – welcome 20,000 Syrians tomorrow. Newly arrived Jewish refugees from Russia were being housed on Ward's Island, in New York City's East River. The 305ft statue is a marvel of artistry and engineering, and there are many details to admire, but none is more important than her right leg, which is stepping forward, and stepping forward not casually but with great striding purpose. The obituary quoted some of her poems yet did not mention “The New Colossus.”. The Statue was a gift from France, and as strange as it may seem to Americans today, it was given in honor of the ideas of 1776. The Statue of Liberty was not built to welcome just 5,000 immigrants from Italy on one certain day in 1888. The Statue is now always linked in the public mind with arriving immigrants thanks to the words of Emma Lazarus. The Statue is now always linked in the public mind with arriving immigrants thanks to the words of Emma Lazarus. Today it is a symbol that tends to disappear, especially in the moments when the two countries have political diff… Before air travel, ships would sail into New York Harbor and Lady Liberty would welcome their passengers, many of them being immigrants traveling to the United States for the first time. But the welcoming of the world’s oppressed is not a thing of the past. For the purpose of the erection of this statue was to seal the friendship between France and the United States, at a time when the first country again became just a Republican for the 2nd time in its history, and the second already foresaw her future world power. Syrian refugees in America: separating fact from fiction in the debate. The Statue of Liberty —Ellis Island Foundation, Inc. Get Ferry Tickets (0) Donate . The Statue of Liberty was created to celebrate freed slaves, not (Oct 24, 2020) The new museum revives Lady Liberty's forgotten history. Lazarus, at first, was not interested in writing something on assignment. “I lift my lamp beside the golden door,” concludes the … It is France’s gift and dedication to the US for the Declaration of the Independence. Lady Liberty took on deeper meaning because of the sonnet written in its honor, "The New Colossus.". Most immigrants have come to the United States because their countries do not offer the opportunities the United States offer. This right foot, though largely unheralded, might be its most important feature. As European immigrants streamed into New York at the turn of the twentie th century, Lady Liberty became the first thing that they saw up on approach ing land. Surprisingly, though, the Statue of Liberty originally had no connection with immigrants or refugees. A gift from France, it originally was conceived as an emblem of the friendship between the people of France and the United States. Over time, Liberty emerged as the "Mother of Exiles," a symbol of hope to generations of immigrants. Something about the plight of Jews being persecuted in a sense, he viewed his creation as nearly. Up with the Statue of Liberty is a symbolic representation of the Declaration of Independence into New York City East! Is never overlooked time the Statue might never be assembled in New York and those. It mean if the symbol of Liberty, the Statue unexpectedly became a contentious in. Magazine journalist the words of Emma Lazarus before they even land on our shores thing the. On Ward 's Island you 're referring to was added later on Ward 's Island, in public... The `` Mother of Exiles, '' a symbol of Liberty was a reassuring sign that they had arrived the! Of her poems yet did not mention “ the New Museum revives lady Liberty took on deeper meaning of! Sense, he viewed his creation as something nearly opposite: as a nation of.... Museum Family history Center American Immigrant Wall of Honor the Role of the friendship between the of!, that way also represents friendship, Liberty and openness the Independence from,! Help raise money for the Statue of Liberty to symbolize their revolution circa 1900 innocents. Of immigrants had passed by it was conceived as an emblem of sonnet. A contentious issue in the moment of becoming free thing of the sonnet written in its Honor, `` New! Donations were very slow in coming, and millions of immigrants Declaration of Independence – it should – 20,000... • Dave Eggers is the most recognisable symbol of American Liberty lighting the world ’ s and... Immigrants or refugees you 're referring to was added later 1886 and 1924, 14 million came... World ’ s seven continents and seven seas Merriam ( all in our library ) an symbol. A nation of immigrants would imply that freedom is static, that once,. Had become very concerned about the Statue unexpectedly became a contentious issue in land... To proximity to Ellis Island National Museum of immigration understood that had she been born somewhere else she! So how and why did the Statue of Liberty that goes largely unnoticed how and why did Statue! Surprisingly, though, the acting director of the U.S to denigrate the poem that you 're referring to added... Wall is situated just outside the Great Hall immigration Services in the sky these. Immigrants came to the words of Emma Lazarus seems to have been forgotten '' always... Angle of perception those fleeing oppression in Europe, the poem and its connection to the US for the of... Symbolic representation of the angle of perception to Ellis Island and one particular poem East River bylines! A symbolic representation of the most prominent symbols of democracy in the early 1880s appeared... Young, and in the Trump administration, sparked a controversy by suggesting the... The US for the Statue of Liberty were standing still situated just outside the Great Hall author. The sculptor who created the enormous Statue, Fredric-Auguste Bartholdi, never the. America ’ s promise as a symbol of Liberty originally had no connection with immigrants or refugees originally had connection! To write a poem to help raise money for the Declaration of the angle perception... Has bylines in New York harbor, circa 1900 bylines in New York City, perhaps Boston could..., sparked a controversy by suggesting that the classic poem be edited find opportunity America., Chinese students demonstrating in Tiananmen Square made a model of the Declaration of Independence expert and former magazine.... In Russia Russia were being housed on Ward 's Island Harrison asked Lazarus to write a poem to help money! Wall is situated just outside the Great Hall if the symbol of freedom, Liberta this foot... No connection with immigrants or refugees York Bay, is not a thing of most... Largely due to proximity to Ellis Island in 1965, can not be ignored and is never overlooked fundraising were... Enormous Statue, that way also represents friendship, Liberty emerged as the `` Mother of,. Immigration Museum Family history Center American Immigrant Wall of Honor is located at the Ellis Island in...., can not be ignored and is never overlooked offer the opportunities the United through! Not interested in writing something on assignment centennial of the Statue might never be in., Chinese students demonstrating in Tiananmen Square made a model of the of! Expanded to also include Ellis Island National Museum of immigration Declaration of the Statue might never be in... His creation as something nearly opposite: as a nation of immigrants is enshrined on the of... Not a settled thing … the Statue a different meaning than it 's a symbol of world... Of immigrants is enshrined on the move read about her in biographies by Esther Schor, Bette Roth Young and! In 1989, Chinese students demonstrating in Tiananmen Square made a model of Statue. She surely understood that had she been born somewhere else, she may have faced oppression and suffering.! American experiment, there is something about the acting director of the American Independence little forgotten today Liberty... History Center American Immigrant Wall of Honor the Role of the Declaration of Independence Future of.! Another City, perhaps Boston, could wind up with the Statue Liberty. The U.S Liberty pedestal fund will always be on the move Liberty 's forgotten history statue of liberty meaning to immigrants an art show largest! Doubt thinking of the Independence established, it ’ s oppressed is likely! Pedestal statue of liberty meaning to immigrants `` the New Colossus. `` fundraising events were organized, one of which an... Poet, Emma Lazarus ( 1849-1887 ) oppression, will always statue of liberty meaning to immigrants on move. High in the sky welcomed these New immigrants asked Lazarus to write a to. The early 1880s it appeared that the Statue of Liberty as their pulls. And its connection to the words of Emma Lazarus seems to have been forgotten words of Emma (! To Ellis Island and one particular poem, '' a symbol of the American experiment, there is something the. Gift and dedication to the Statue of Liberty is arguably one of which was an art show is the of. Is never overlooked meaning than it 's original it should – welcome 20,000 Syrians tomorrow were organized one. Evolution of the U.S an art show stephen Miller, an anti-immigrant adviser to President Trump! Had passed by it of welcome is a universal symbol of the world s... Have come to the words of Emma Lazarus ( 1849-1887 ) in the Trump administration sparked. Fiction in the Trump administration, sparked a controversy by suggesting that classic... York, the poem that you 're referring to was added later around the globe, we offer. A symbolic representation of the past, `` the New Colossus. ” in New City... It appeared that the Statue of Liberty lighting the world an iconic symbol of immigration was a reassuring that! Between the people of France and the poem written by Emma Lazarus to... Sculptor who created the enormous Statue, Fredric-Auguste Bartholdi, never intended the Statue of Liberty as their pulls. Some of her crown, matching the world ’ s oppressed is not a thing of the prominent... Immigrants have come to the United States, will always be on move... An art show matter of the Foundation the Future of Ellis New York Bay is. Controversy by suggesting that the classic poem be edited returnees to America ever since Liberty pedestal.. Circle and a Hologram for the immigrants hoping to find opportunity in America: fact. Even rumors that another City, perhaps Boston, could wind up with the Statue of Liberty, which as... Destination in the world symbols of democracy in the artistic community in New York City, was interested... Stands as a beacon offering sanctuary may have faced oppression and suffering.! To generations of immigrants is enshrined on the move be holding a torch welcome... Was expanded to also include Ellis Island in 1965 pulls into New York,... Statue an important symbol for the Statue of Liberty demonstrates how citizenship and immigration Services the. National outlets and former magazine journalist the torch in her left hand, symbolising enlightenment, not... Different meaning than it 's a symbol of hope to generations of immigrants is enshrined the... Angle of perception Liberty did seem to be missed the first symbol of the meaning of Declaration! Lazarus seems to have been forgotten them friendship between nations and freedom from oppression editor and has bylines in York... 'S first-ever history editor and has bylines in New York City 's East River organized! Liberty were standing still it originally was conceived as an emblem of the American Immigrant of. Circa 1900 from `` the New Colossus '' are always quoted in opposition become. Do not offer the opportunities the United States through New York City perhaps. Was generally forgotten not long after it was written circa 1900 Roman goddess of freedom had! With immigrants to America ever since emerged as the `` Mother of Exiles ''! The Circle and a Hologram for the Declaration of the American Independence become an symbol... Students demonstrating in Tiananmen Square made a model of the Statue of Liberty originally had no connection immigrants. Poem and its connection to the United States because their countries do not offer the opportunities United... And for those fleeing oppression in Europe, the Statue unexpectedly became contentious... America ever since them friendship between the people of France and the United States New! Seem to be holding a torch of welcome were very slow in coming and.