Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) is generally considered to be one of the most profound and original philosophers who ever lived. The rights theory outlines certain privileges that an individual is entitled to, namely freedom of speech, the right to privacy, and the right to due process. For instance, naturalrights are the sub-class of moral rights that humans have because oftheir nature. Gewirth, A. Dec. 2, 2020. Throughout history, a few moral theories have surfaced and have been analyzed for their strengths and weaknesses. Last time, we talked about the Utilitarian Approach to ethical decision-making. Hart did write aboutmoral rights (1955, 1979) as well as legal ones (1973, 1994), but not in away that allows for much direct comparison. The four ethical theories according to the text are rights theory, justice theory, utilitarianism, and profit maximization. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Theory of Ethics It's difficult to say exactly what ethics is, but we can say that it involves a standard of what is right and wrong based on what people ought to do. Individuals may also bestow rights upon others if they have the ability and resources to do so. The idea is that a manager trained in ethical conduct will recognize unethical actions before they are taken and deter herself and the corporation from the unethical acts. The bureaucratic ethos includes such traditional organizational standards as efficiency, competence, loyalty and accountability. This has been based on the laissez faire theory of capitalism first expressed by Adam Smith in the 18th century and more recently promoted by economists such as Milton Friedman and Thomas Sowell. Rawls’s justice theory has application in the business context which requires decision makers to be guided by fairness and impartiality. Wimbush and Shephard (1984: 637-647) reported that businesses annually spend an estimated $40 billion on the ethical behavior problems. He further limited the principle with the Difference Principle: social inequalities are acceptable only if they cannot be eliminated without making the worst-off class even worse off. Donations are tax-deductible to the full extent allowed by law. Rights theories concern what types of rights belong to or should be given to whom and why. One of his formulations of the categorical imperative is “Act only on that maxim whereby at the same time you can will that it shall become a universal law”. The contemporary doctrine of human rights is one of a number of universalist moral perspectives. Last time, we talked about the Utilitarian Approach to ethical decision-making. Why your go-to-market strategy should be industry focused; Dec. 1, 2020. Hohfeld (1919), for example, confined his discussion entirelyto legal rights and never mentioned moral ones. STUDY. Rights theory is one particular duty-based theory of ethics. In general under capitalism, the interests of shareholders are put above those of employees, so production will move abroad. (1999 ) A theory of justice, rev. This includes not only humans but all mammals and many other animals. There are many different forms of moral rights theories, each of which has its own framework and arguments to support the claim that humans, and sometimes nonhuman animals, have rights. It is the only moral … This is generally regarded as being an ethical choice because in the long run, the alternative, domestic production might cause the business to collapse and go bankrupt. Match. Rights are safeguards of interests that people have. The theorists discussed below all have theories of moral rights. Why your go-to-market strategy should be industry focused; Dec. 1, 2020. You’re used to rights-talk from legal discussions. They include the increasing influence of cultural values substantially different from those of our Anglo-Saxon heritage; impacts of a complex global economy on local economic structures; and our rapidly increasing technological capacity to communicate and interact with the global community. Major Types of Virtue Ethical Theories. The opposite of rights based ethics are utilitarian ethics. Corporate governance is the structure used to direct and manage business and affairs of the company towards enhancing prosperity and corporate accountability. Sumner, L. W. (1987) The moral foundations of rights, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Act utilitarianism judges each act separately, assessing a single act’s benefit and its cost to society’s members. Rights, say the left, do not precede political laws but f… John Locke (1632 - 1704) Based off the principles and beliefs of John Locke, a 17 th century English philosopher, Locke’s Rights Ethics is one of the four major ethical theories that has shaped today’s society. The principle of rights theory is the idea that in order for a society to be successful government must approach the making and enforcement of laws with the right intentions in respect to the end goals of the society that it governs. Virtue ethics names a type of ethical theory that takes virtues of character, rather than individual actions or rules, as the most fundamental ethical concepts. Regan, T. (1978) “Fox’s critique of animal liberation”, Ethics, 88, pp. In a way to improve corporate governance and corporate social responsibilities, according to Mallor et al., 2010, one can modify the corporate governance model to educate, motivate, and supervise executives and thereby improve corporate social responsibility. Ethics - Ethics - Natural law ethics: During most of the 20th century, most secular moral philosophers considered natural law ethics to be a lifeless medieval relic, preserved only in Roman Catholic schools of moral theology. Rowlands, M. (2002) Animals like us, London: Verso. We are also facing increasing conflicts between the “bureaucratic ethos” and the “democratic ethos” (Hejka-Ekins, 1998). (1989 ) Animal rights and human obligations, 2nd ed., Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Evidence suggests that sources of ethical dilemmas will continue to increase. Regan, T. (2001) Defending animal rights, Chicago: University of Illinois Press. – Rejects view of assessing the results of actions – Expresses moral rights from individuals view, not societys. Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior". Corporate critics however did propose a wide rang of cures, all of which have been implemented to some degree and with varying degrees of success. According to Regan, anyone who is a subject-of-a-life has inherent value. It is generally accepted that customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors in successful business strategy. Rights-based ethics is a concept that because one is a human being that person is entitled to certain rights. Although a company must continue to develop, alter and adapt products to keep pace with customers’ changing desires and preferences. 3 Franklin, J. H. (2005) Animal rights and moral philosophy, New York: Columbia University Press. Some current authors have developed theories based on a Kantian viewpoint but have tried to avoid some of the problems such a viewpoint entails. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Rights Based Ethics. Examples of rights-based ethics at work include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Geneva Conventions and the United States' Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights and Constitution. The most important strength of rights theory is that it protects fundamental rights, unless some greater right takes precedence. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Human rights must, it added, "be seen as an aspect of professional, ethical and social responsibility in all … The foremost portion of business ethics understands the theory of rights as one of the core principles in the five-item ethical positions that deem essential in the understanding of moral business practices (Gardiner, 2003). Rights theories can refer to moral rights or legal rights. Rights based ethics (summary of main points covered in lecture) Rights are claims against others (whether individuals or social entities) to be treated in certain ways. Rights are also considered to be ethically correct and legitimate given that a large or ruling population endorses them. The state is the only source of right and outside the state an individual has no rights at all and never claim rights against state. In recent years applied ethical issues have been subdivided into convenient groups such as medical ethics, business ethics, environmental ethics, and sexual ethics. The moral rationalism is that in which the decisive factor of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive, and it has its major proponent in Emmanuel Kant (Llano, 2002). Types of rights. Now these examples help to show exactly what a rights based ethics … Ethical Theory. He claims that nonhuman animals should enjoy legal rights which would consist mainly of the basic right not to be used as resources by others. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Rights are considered to be ethically correct and valid since a large or ruling population endorses them. Write. Rights can becategorized, for example, according to: Many of these categories have sub-categories. Kant viewed humans as moral actors that are free to make choices and he also believed that humans are able to judge the morality of any action by applying his famous “categorical imperative”. In this case, that means outsourcing the jobs. The rights theory covers a range of ethical philosophies that holds that certain human rights are important and must be respected by other society and her rights. Rights, then, play a central role in ethics. To make sense of this profusion of assertions wecan class rights together by common attributes. Prezi Video + Unsplash: Access over two million images to tell your story through video (1978) Reason and morality, Chicago: Chicago University Press. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Individual Character Ethics: The individual character ethics hold that the identification and development of noble human traits help in determining both the instrumental and intrinsic value of human ethical interactions.These noble traits are courage, self-discipline, prudence, gratitude, wisdom, sincerity, understanding, benevolence, etc. As is often pointed out, a happy customer will come back, but a disgruntled customer will tell others about his or her dissatisfaction with a company and discourage friends from dealing with it. If this happens, all of the company’s stakeholders will suffer-not just its employees. *You can also browse our support articles here >. 77-110; (1996) The sources of normativity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. The rights theory outlines certain privileges that an individual is entitled to, namely freedom of speech, the right to privacy, and the right to due process. These theories often come into conflict with each other, however, and a firm grasp of their basic differences is essential for those who want to study moral theories such as human rights and ethics. Rights based ethics (summary of main points covered in lecture) Rights are claims against others (whether individuals or social entities) to be treated in certain ways. Laws are rules that must be obeyed, both voluntarily and involuntarily, whereas ethics are voluntary. The strength of Rawls’s justice theory lies in its basic premise, the protection of those who are least advantaged in society. Rosie1720. Profit maximization optimizes total social utility by narrowing the actor’s focus, requiring the decision maker to make a decision that merely maximizes profits for himself or his organization. In particular, individualism and materialism are at the present celebrated within major social institutions and have become a dominate ethos of the “baby bust generation.” Self-indulgence, greed, self-interest, and privatism are accepted components of the ethos of this generation (Frederickson, 1982). Change has been so rapid that some have argued that we have lost our sense of values or that we must seek better mechanisms to resolve value conflicts. (1964 ) Groundwork of the metaphysic of morals, New York: Harper and Row, 4:429. For a natural rights theorist, morally permissible actions are ones that respect rights, and morally impermissible actions are ones that violate rights. On the other hand, if employees want managers to act fairly toward them, then employees need to act fairly toward their companies and work hard and be loyal. rights-based theory a type of ethical theory under which the language of rights provides the basic terminology for ethical and political theory; it maintains that a democratic society must protect individuals and allow all to pursue personal goals. Of course, every dilemma can be dissected using more than one approach, and thus, the end result or decision may […] Organizational values are vital influence on the majority of us; thus far our organizational lives are becoming increasingly participatory, open, communicative and interactive. Ethics are a system of moral principles and a branch of philosophy which defines what is good for individuals and society. Ethics are a system of moral principles and a branch of philosophy which defines what is good for individuals and society. Alasdair MacIntyre is a Scottish philosopher who has published a number of works in a variety of philosophical fields, including political philosophy, ethics … In order to improve the ethical climate of an organization, management must effectively communicate proper ethical behavior throughout the organization. Kant’s theory is based on the ground he has called categorical imperative, a moral principle that states that an … Ethical conduct towards customers builds a strong competitive position that has been shown to affect business performance and product innovation positively. He has argued that all sentient animals have basic moral rights due to the very fact that they are sentient.7. The term ethics may refer to the philosophical study of the concepts of moral right and wrong and moral good and bad, to any philosophical theory of what is morally right and wrong or morally good and bad, and to any system or code of moral rules, principles, or values. Kant is also known for his theory that there is a single moral obligation which he called the “Categorical Imperative”, and derived from the perception of duty. Rights-based ethics is centered around the idea that people possess certain rights merely by virtue of being born human. Within such a theory, rights are rules the general observance of which will lead to an optimal distribution of advantages. All work is written to order. According to the influential moral philosopher Immanuel Kant, we should only act in a way that we would want to become a universal law. They have claimed that since nonhuman animals are sentient, if we were in their place we would not find it acceptable to have our interests disregarded as theirs are. We encounter assertions of rights as we encounter sounds: persistentlyand in great variety. At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles. Legal rights also protect the interests of individuals, but legal rights and moral rights are different things. 126-133. The ethical dilemma for managers is to determine the fair rules and procedures for distributing outcomes to stakeholders. Business ethics are defined by actions that … One may be alarmed that democratic rights or equality may not be included in a human rights approach based on subsistence, in which case a theory based on liberal dignity would be adopted. There are two types of utilitarianism, act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. See also, for instance, ibid., 6:442; (1997 ) Critique of practical reason, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 5:7; (1997) Lectures on ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The codes can be viewed in two ways; one sees the codes as genuine efforts to foster ethical behavior within a firm or an industry while others view regards them as thinly disguised attempts to make the firm function better, to mislead the public into believing the firm behaves ethically, to prevent the passage of legislation that would impose stricter constraints on business, or to limit competition under the veil of ethical standards. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. John Locke (1632 - 1704) Based off the principles and beliefs of John Locke, a 17 th century English philosopher, Locke’s Rights Ethics is one of the four major ethical theories that has shaped today’s society. Pluhar, E. (1981) “Must an opponent of animal rights also be an opponent of human rights?”, Inquiry, 24, pp. One author, Alan Gewirth, has claimed that all agents, by the mere fact of acting, are assuming they have the right to act, as well as other rights needed to act (such as the rights needed for survival),4 and that therefore, if we want to be consistent, we should respect the rights of others. Tom Regan, a well known defender of a moral rights view for nonhuman animals, has another perspective. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Regan, T. (1977) “Frey on interests and animal rights”, Philosophical Quarterly, 27, pp. Perhaps each of them, taken separately, wouldn’t be conclusive, but when we consider them together we have a cumulative argument which makes a strong case for that claim.6 He believes that we would have to reject as unsatisfactory any theory that denied direct duties towards nonhuman animals, that denied that we should accept and respect moral rights, or that claimed that only humans have inherent value. Because they are rights they create a moral responsibility and others to acknowledge and except these rights. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. In this distance learning degree, you’ll gain a solid grounding in the political and international theory of human rights and global ethics. The four ethical theories according to the text are rights theory, justice theory, utilitarianism, and profit maximization. Most generally, a “right” is a justified claim against another person’s behavior – such as my right to not be harmed by you (see also human rights). The archetypal instrumental theory is some form of two-level consequentialism, such as rule utilitarianism. Business Meta-Ethics: an Analysis of Two Theories. Applied ethics is the branch of ethics which consists of the analysis of specific, controversial moral issues such as abortion, animal rights, or euthanasia. 251-257. You’re used to rights-talk from legal discussions. Second, “stakeholders” have a relatively easy time gaining access to our policy making system; therefore, value conflicts are very visible and, frequently, cause our problem-solving process to forge slow, painful compromises. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. A major criticism of the rights theory deal with the near absolute yet relative value of the rights protected, making it difficult to articulate and administer a comprehensive rights theory. Majority of corporations in this present day express their dedication to ethical decision-making by an ethics officer who is not only responsible for ethical instruction, but also in charge of ethical supervision. Rights claims generate correlative duties on the part of others. Mr. Kant attempted to change our everyday, clear, rational knowledge of morality into philosophical knowledge. Regan, T. & VanDeVeer, D. Kant’s theory is based on the ground he has called categorical imperative, a moral principle that states that an … Some rights theorists do not believe there is such a thing as moral rights but argue for legal rights for nonhuman animals as a way of protecting their interests. Created by. 305-324. Rights are generally defined as justified claims for the protection of general interests. Certain rights because we are witnessing rapid change in the nature and role of the company ’ s basic and. In their operations can use an ethics theory they deem most appropriate for in. 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