The major causes of deforestation in Cambodia are illegal logging, forestland conversion, heavy reliance on fuel wood for energy, lack of transparency in concession systems, and unsustainable harvesting by concessionaires, poor management, corruption, and land grabs, Given that chemical mixtures usually are far more toxic than their individual ingredients, it is not sufficient to ensure that the chemical use and management of an individual company, authority or, Enhance the understanding of practices and barriers to stakeholder interaction in research processes. Zambia Household Energy Report, Draft 2010. dependent on access to land and water and ecosystem services for food security and income. Stakeholder consultation was conducted in Madagascar, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe during the peak of the 2015/16 drought, focusing on overall drought impacts, current water resource availability, existing early warning systems, adaptation mechanisms and institutional capacity to mitigate and manage droughts as part of overall disaster risk reduction strategies. GRZ, 2008a. A large decrease in such, employment over the past two or three decades has forced more people back to the rural areas, to carry out subsistence agriculture and fishing, which puts pressure on a greater area of, wildlife habitat. Zambia uses below 40% of its available water resources, of which a vast majority (90%) is, used for hydropower generation, 7.5% for irrigation, 1.6% for domestic purposes, and the rest, understood than surface water. Transparency International Corruption Perception Index 2010 Report. The impacts of climate change include warming temperatures, changes in precipitation, increases in the frequency or intensity of some extreme weather events, and rising sea levels. Extreme events such as floods and droughts cause major damage in Zambia. environmental mainstreaming. To begin this, the Environmental Council of Zambia and the Ministry of Finance and National Planning, facilitated by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), decided to bring together a dozen highly experienced Zambian professionals who work in environment and development in government, business, civil society and academia. increasing water demand of the population and economic activities is currently not met. In addition, any increase in flooding due to extreme rainfall events will also increase the risk of cholera. The river systems supplying the source water are also experiencing a host of other changes that threaten the water quality (Campbell 2005;Rajendran 2003;Serrat 2005;Udomchoke et al. Executive Summary This Environmental and Climate Change Policy Brief has been written as an input to the Poverty and Development Assessment that Sida is undertaking as part of the preparation of a revised Swedish cooperation strategy with Zambia. The Economics of Climate Change in Zambia. Investments particularly in agriculture. UNDP has been active in supporting the, preparation of the 2nd National Communication to the UNFCCC as well as capacity building. It is, important that these developments are properly planned as unplanned development may have, negative effects on the environment, such as increased resource-use and pollution, and will, Open Society Institute of Southern Africa et al., 2, Government of Zambia 2010c National Climate Change Re, Infrastructure and Transport: Increases in flood magnitude could damage major roads, and, high temperatures could buckle important regional railway links. In this chapter, we examine water and sanitation services in Africa, highlighting the challenges of achieving the two dimensions of SDG 6. Countries like Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique and Botswana are affected and as a result, food insecure (Bohringer, 2002). Tourism is largely based on wildlife, which in turn is. (2008) Promoting renewable energy technologies for rural. In this study, we have shown the importance of remote sensing applications and community forestry for forest management, discussed as a case study on Cambodian forest management. Environmental integration will hopefully be improved in subsequent drafts of the SNDP. lime producers and petroleum production facilities. Changes in air quality from climate change may impact a person’s physical and mental health. stream ABSTRACT: Marked interannual fluctuations in rainfall are a fundamental aspect of southern African climate. The National Policy on the Environment identifies. The MTENR now, Environment and Natural Resources Management and Mainstreaming Programme, -system services and environmental degradation is largely unaccounted for in national. a further response to the Convention on Climate Change; to environment and natural resources (source: GRZ, 2008c). 4291, The World Bank Development Research Group, Washington D.C. 4 Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources (MTENR). It might be possible to use schools for channelling resources to the poor. 2006 were estimated. The study also estimated that for 2006-, 2016, average climate variability would keep an, extra 300,000 people living below the national, poverty line, whereas more severe climate, Adjusted net saving (ANS) is a sustainability indicator building on the concept, Adjusted net savings measure the true rate of savings in an eco, human capital, depletion of natural resources and da, variability would keep an extra 650,000 people in poverty. <> These should embrace efforts to promote quality livestock and fisheries production and crop, diversification while improving marketing systems and productivity in farming to ensure. The third is Support to Environmental Mainstreaming supported by an, During the last years internationally supported initiatives for climate change adaptation and, mitigation have intensified. Southern Africa is often caught unprepared by drought as existing early warning systems lack the drought forecasting component, which often results in reactionary interventions as opposed to well-planned and proactive response mechanisms. These groups are heavily. An important reform to undertake would be to change the budget cycle. producers and petroleum production facilities. Continuing rampant deforestation, . WHO estimates that there are more than. The key findings from the research analysis are as follows: the existing regulations and governance system do not facilitate the active engagement of local entities in water quality governance. Environment and Natural Resources Management and Mainstreaming, 2009. Responding to climate change: The threats of climate impacts to sustainable development are critical and these have to be addressed if Zambia is to move towards endobj savings, a World Bank sustainability indicator. 12) of 1990 and the Mines and Minerals (Environmental) Regulations of 1997 also regulated mining operations. The views expressed in the document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of Sida. The poverty head count index is found to have declined from 1998 to 2004 by about 5.4 percentage points. When people have no employment and no alternatives to feed themselves, it, is no good telling them that they should not use the resources around them. However, household use of solar energy technologies in the form of solar home systems is limited to an elite group of rural population that is mostly in formal and / or government employment. The private sector development strategy should make the country a more attractive destination for private investors by creating a better business environment and infrastructure. Whilst weather extremes and hazards are inevitable, the. Deforestation and wildfires, due to clearing land for agriculture or production of charcoal, contribute to degradation of land and loss of, reflected in reduced water in rivers and streams during the dry seasons, streams - and floods during rainy season, poor ground water recharge and siltation and, Large-scale agriculture (e.g. Correlations with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) were used to infer how large-scale climate variability affects these attributes of rainfall and highlight where (and when) trends may contribute to more frequent crossings of critical thresholds. The key question is whether the institutional capacity can be built to implement these plans, for example whether Integrated Water Resource Management can be operationalised as, Health sector adaptation options outlined in the NAPA are primarily focused on, mainstreaming climate change into existing public initiatives, for example strengthening, disease surveillance programmes and adding a climate-based early warning system to Malaria, programmes In addition, it is noted that activities to increase food security will increase the, resilience of the population to health related climate impacts, The only project from the NAPA to be directly funded through the GEF Least Developed, Country Fund so far is the 'Adaptation of the effects of drought in the context of climate, change in agro-ecological region I of Zambia', worth $3.45m. Zambia has been experiencing adverse impacts of climate change - including an increase in frequency and severity of seasonal droughts, occasional dry spells, increased temperatures in valleys, flash floods and changes in the growing season. In Zambia, the south is often dry, while the north is susceptible to flooding, ?We are assessing the impacts of climate change, [like] droughts and floods on human health. NAPA (2007) National Adaptation Programme of Action of the Republic of Zambia. environment (such as acid rains and desertification). 31) of September 13, 1995. The Act also provided for. Air and water pollution has serious negative health implications for poor, households in general and for children in particular. Fernández, M.A.L., Bauernfeind, A., Díaz Jiménez, M. Linares Gil, C., El Omeiri, N. and, Herrera Guibert, D. (2009) Influence of temperature and rainfall on the evolution of cholera, Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act (No. All rights reserved. The Zambian economy has grown relatively fast over the last decade up to the current global financial crisis. The overfishing of Zambian water resources will have. 2010;Yen et al. This study assessed the factors affecting the adoption and impact of improved fallows on a commonly grown cash crop, cotton, in the cotton growing provinces of Zambia. ........................................... What are the effects of the environmental challenges on poverty and. The tsetse flies are controlled through, spraying of pesticides in infested areas, but the distribution of flies may change with changing, A study in 2009 showed that an increase in temperature of 1ºC above average before the start. Each of the last 3 decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decade since 1850(1). Environmental degradation poses significant constraints to key growth sectors such as agriculture and tourism. However, after the privatisation of the copper mining industry in 1998, extensive tax, reductions were introduced for mining concessions and the government lost valuable, revenues: in 1992, budget revenues from copper mining taxes was $200m, while in 2004 it, lead dust in soil and metals in water are, In 2008, significant new legislation concerning the mining sector was, implemented, for instance related to a considerable increase of taxes and royalties on mining. The attributable risks were 4.9% for temperature and 2.4% for rainfall. infrastructure offer an effective means to make a significant impact to reduce poverty levels. The, NCCDC would liaise closely with institutions such as the Zambian Meteorological, Department, the Environmental Council of Zambia and the Ministry of Tourism, Environment, and Natural Resources (MTENR), which is at present the main ministry with responsibility, for climate change. It is found that there is substantial interannual variability in these parameters with some indications of a relationship between anomalies in onset date and those in Niño3.4 SST, particularly over the northern part of the country. However, most of Zambia’s, environmental problems are intrinsically linked to poverty and cannot be solved by, environmental policy alone. Outdoor air pollution is a problem in parts of Zambia, localised to major. It has noticed that the water quality from PPWSA has showed well in this last decade. E.g. Renewed Growth and Poverty Reduction, in Zambia, Working Papers in Economics No. Mfune, O. and Boon, E.K. Improved agroforestry was introduced by WAC to Buhera district in 2002 and in Mutasa district, since 2005. Although individual extreme, events cannot be linked to climate change, the likelihood of severe events such as these will, increase. In this context, this study critically examines the case of Georgia, a transitional country. 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