They held the charges higher up in the hierarchy, as much on the administrative level as on the military. Interesting Facts About the Persian Empire. The richest adorned themselves with jewels, necklaces, bracelets and chest-pieces. Magus, member of an ancient Persian clan specializing in cultic activities. Worship was essentially the fulfillment of these duties, complemented with the veneration of fire. They represented the king in the province and considered themselves united to him by a knot of fidelity in defense and administration of goods. .” (Herodotus, Histories, 1.135). Xenophon. Greek Olympics: Ancient Greek Olympics for the Classroom 3-4 days mini-unit with student role handouts and games. The Persian civilization developed in what is current Iran. and decided to begin a policy of conquests of the neighboring territories. If the circumstances called for it, they could dismiss the satrap. Darius conquered to the East all the territories as far as the Indus River valley, and to the West, Thrace and Macedonia. Ancient Persia Free Games & Activities for Kids. This decorative aspect shows the daily events of the man in his perennial struggle for survival. Unfortunately, textual Persian perspectives are few (Dusinberre, 1999, 75). The Persian Empire was sustained, in one way or another, for 150 more years, until in 330 B.C., it was incorporated by Alexander of Macedonia into his empire. The Sassanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I (r. 224-240 CE) who had been a general under the Parthians before he overthrew the last Parthian king and established his own dynasty. That is to say, they spread the use of money throughout all of the Near East. In this course, students will learn about the Medes and Persians. Later on, the utilization of iron and war chariots would make them into fearsome warriors. Epic of the Kings. Backgammon, a popular modern game, was first invented in Iran in about 3000 BC. In addition to hunting, horse racing and an ancestor of modern polo may have been popular leisure activities in Persia (Womack, 2003, 132). The most important were those of Susa and Persepolis. The inferior sector of society was made up of businessmen, artisans, and the peasants. In the beginning, they were divided into 10 or 12 tribes, whose chiefs had the title of King. In the secondary categories the artisans were included, sometimes confused with artists; the architects, engineers, etc. Apparently, they had an important oral literature, but no vestiges of it have been left. . The Persian Empire. He directed himself next against the Neo-Babylonian Empire, which he conquered quickly; he annexed thus Mesopotamia and its Syrian dependencies to the Persian dominions (1538 B.C.). On his death, his son Cambyses continued the expansive work, directing himself towards Egypt and conquering it easily (525 B.C.). Between the nobility and the rural masses were found the priests or magi, who, in spite of the religious reforms realized by Zarathustra (also called Zoroaster), occupied a very important place in the empire. The superiority of their army was owing to the tactic of assault with archers on horseback. The ancient Persian culture awarded a preponderant importance to the decorative aspect in their art; which they used as resource and vehicle of expression with a deep philosophical meaning about life. The spirit of evil represented death and lies. In its trace posts and relays were placed, by reason of the extent of its reach. Xenophon’s remarks suggest the Persian elite engaged in sporting competitions: “passing their time shooting with the bow and hurling the spear and practising all the other arts they learnt when boys, they continually engage in contests of this kind with one another. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Egypt Greece Rome Mesopotamia Vikings Other Ancients Myths. Weddings were celebrated very early; frequently during puberty, and were arranged by the families. We hope you'll find some ideas you can use. Ancient Persian Coins and Artifacts for Sale Important: I am no longer able to ship items of Persian or Iranian origin outside the USA due to new amendments to the US-Iran embargo and subsequent export restrictions. In Ancient Persia, kids will learn about the four kings who built and defended the empire, starting with Cyrus the Great and ending with Xerxes. At its end, Cyaxares and the Chaldean king divided the territories of the Assyrians; for the Medes was left Upper Mesopotamia and western Iran. Translated by Aubrey de Selincourt. From the age of five until he was 20, every Persian boy was trained in archery and horse riding. The king named them directly. On the other hand, the raised great flocks of horses and bovines, as well as donkeys and camels. Some of them were created through the excavation of rocky slopes and mountains. Who were the Persians? The Persian Empire. They tightened these tunics at the waist with a leather belt. On these routes, whose distances were measured in Parasangs (each Parasang was equivalent to a little more than five kilometers), lodgings had been established which, according to Herodotus, impenitent traveler, were excellent. to about A.D. 600 -- approximately the date of the advent of Islam. ( Log Out /  The Persians, especially after Darius, and only in high society, employed abundant shaves, perfumes, and haircuts. The borders then reached their maximum extension. Society was divided into different hierarchies, in accordance with their privileges and occupations. The Persians dedicated themselves fundamentally to the construction of palaces with monumental characteristics. Map of the Persian Empire. Ancient Middle East 6 -- The Persian Empire. Ten years later, in 480 B.C., his son Xerxes again attempted the conquest of Greece, giving rise to the Second Greco-Persian War, but he failed just like his father. The Persians, on incorporating the Lydian kingdom into their empire, took the monetary custom and imposed it throughout all their State. It is one of the oldest surviving board games. Ancient-Persian-Social-Hierarchy. Ancient Persians enjoyed a time of rich cultures and lifestyles, exciting firsts, and advancements of the day. This free Lesson Plan for Kids Discover Ancient Persia is packed with activities and assessments to help you teach kids about this vast empire’s accomplishments, from stunning mosques and works of art to its most far-reaching legacy: Islam. Persians ("lesson" is the powerpoint) Images of Ancient Persia. The tradition of gardens has been conserved, on the other hand, in this area of the world, not only throughout all of the ancient times, but also during the Middle Ages, in Muslim Persia, and in modern times. Secretaries completed the functions of royal advisers of the satrap. Hellenica. The woman was never in inferior conditions; she went about freely and could be a counselor greatly taken into account. If it is in accordance with the spirit of good, he is rewarded in his above-ground life. It should be specified that in the last era, it was considered of good form among rich families to keep women closed in, which never happened with the other social classes. Because of the lack of water and vegetation in this country burned by the sun, the Persians gave great importance to gardens for recreation, whose supreme luxury consisted in being scored with innumerable small streams, sprinkled by fountains and full of flowers. Edited by Walter Miller. Among their responsibilities was found that of investigating the governor of the province. The roads had, in addition, the advantage of being safe, a very rare thing in ancient times. The Persian Empire was the largest and most powerful empire in the world at the time of the Persian Wars. The three classes were nobles, bondsmen, and slaves—though technically, everyone was a bondsman of the king. The women seem to have worn a suit very similar to that of the men, but certainty can not be had because there exist very few representations of feminine figures. They also sculpted the facades of the tombs dedicated to the kings, likening them to the fronts of palaces. Although the Persian Empire lasted less than 250 years, during that short time it was the largest empire in the ancient world and a powerhouse of creativity and invention. There are also public contests of this sort, for which prizes are offered” (Cyropaedia). It was made up of 10,000 warriors called “The Immortals” because their number did not change in spite of losses, given that these were immediately replaced to keep the number constant. ), in a record time of approximately a week.”. In the 9th and 8th Centuries B.C. They could also administer justice, based on the law of retaliation. Yet, depicting enemies as uncivilised drunkards is a common trope of ancient Greek historians, and fluted bowls also acted as moveable wealth, some containing significant weights of gold or silver (Metropolitan Museum of Art). The Greeks and the Persians were colonizing Asia Minor and a turf war broke out. In winter they added to this a cloak. The great culture that followed ancient India takes place in the mountainous plateaus of Persia. He would be the true organizer of the empire, and with whom it would reach its greatest splendor. In this way they made a great contribution to commercial development; the difficulties which barter produced for the exchange of merchandise diminished and the transactions took on greater agility and speed. Let's learn more about the daily life of the ancient Persians. As in the other countries of the ancient Orient, the problem of water was crucial in the Persian Empire, with the exception of a few rare, privileged regions. The history of ancient Lebanon traces the course of events in what is now known as Lebanon from the beginning of history to the beginning ... Each of the coastal cities was an independent kingdom noted for the special activities of its inhabitants. Other peoples, although not integrated into the empire, also sent gifts; for example, Ethiopia sent gold, ebony wood, and elephant tusks. The Persians had the idea that the king received his authority from their god (Ahura-Mazda) by whom he was chosen. Cambyses tried to return from Egypt but died suddenly on the journey. The foods consisted of some biscuits made of grains, meat, according to the luck of the hunt, and fruits. Ethics: Tolerance towards conquered peoples. Zoroaster condemned offerings and bloody sacrifices, although the magi practiced them anyway. Intellectual Life: The idea of the struggle between good and evil and man’s freedom of choice in choosing between the two. Free Presentations in PowerPoint format. In this also the times of Darius must be differentiated from those of decadence. This engaging lesson plan the Greco-Persian Wars and Peloponnesian Wars includes a variety of activities to ensure a thorough overview for your unit on Ancient Greece. Herodotus. Kuhrt, Amelie. Its invention is attributed to the Lydians, who formed a State on the coasts of Asia Minor, where an important commercial route passed. Take a virtual tour of their capital city, and find out if Cyrus the Great was really that great! Dusinberre, Elspeth R.M. In no place did they impose by force their religion or their gods. In the other social classes children were instilled, from their most tender infancy, with the hate of lies, a sense of justice, honor, and respect for giving one’s word. Metropolitan Museum of Art, “Collections Online,” Metropolitan Museum of Art, http://www.metmuseum.org/, (accessed May 11, 2012). Inspectors formed a body of auditors who controlled the interests of the king, watching the satraps. Daryaee, Touraj. Immediately beneath the sovereign, we find the representatives of the great families of the Persian nobility. Before that historical time period, there is cosmological time. Ancient Persia was predominantly an agricultural economy. During his absence, the Magi Gaumata, representative of the sacerdotal clan, provoked a revolt and took the throne. “Senet” was a similar type of game invented by the ancient Egyptians, but the Persians are still widely known as the inventors of backgammon. The name is the Latinized form of magoi (e.g., in Herodotus 1:101), the ancient Greek transliteration of the Iranian original. In synthesis, the imperial policy followed by the Persians tried to reconcile unity with diversity, respecting, on the one hand, the regionalisms in culture and traditions, and imposing, on the other hand, a centralization in the payment of tributes and the provision of military services, decisive elements for their survival. As in all of the nations of the era there always existed social inequalities: the society was very hierarchical, and the distinct social sectors were separated by very rigorous barriers. Imperial Borders: Draw the border of the empire at its maximum size under Darius I. Only some fragments are conserved of their greatest written work, the holy book of Avesta. Internet Classics Archive. Required fields are marked *. Thus he became the new king of the Persians. Persia wanted to expand into Europe and the Greek city-states stood in the way. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. It is not impossible that religious factors originated this lack of interest in activities which produce the transformation of material. This plateau, which occupies two million square kilometers, can be delimited: The heart of its territory is a desert zone, surrounded by high mountains. Lesson ID: 13081. Man also participates in this struggle, according to his good or bad behavior. In his Histories, Herodotus states Persian youths were to learn: “to ride a horse, to draw a bow, and to speak the truth.” Xenophon, in Hellenica, describes a Persian satrap’s home as abundant in provisions and “splendid wild animals, some of them in enclosed parks.” In Cyropaedia, Xenophon claims all upper class Persian youths engaged in hunting. The moral training was also vigourously instilled. 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